3.8 Resource Management

This domain includes management of natural resources beyond what has already been covered (e.g. energy in buildings, floodwater).

3.8.1 Develop carbon capture & storage facilities

Source: Global CCS Institute

Location Decatur, IL
Details In October 2009, DOE selected the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) team to conduct one of 12 projects in Phase 1 of its Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS) program. The ADM Illinois ICCS project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of a CO2 compression and dehydration facility as a precursor to CO2 storage and subsequent monitoring, verification, and accounting of the stored CO2. The injected CO2 will come from the byproduct from processing corn into fuel-grade ethanol at ADM’s biofuels plant adjacent to the storage site in Decatur, Illinois. This gas stream will be compressed and dehydrated to deliver supercritical CO2 to the injection wellhead for storage. The injection operations will be conducted on a 200-acre site adjacent to the ethanol plant, which is also owned by ADM. Because all of the captured CO2 is produced from biologic fermentation, a significant feature of the project is its “negative carbon footprint,” meaning that the sequestration results in a net reduction of atmospheric CO2. Integral to the project will be the formation of an educational and training facility, the National Sequestration Education Center, at nearby Richland Community College in Decatur. The center will contain classrooms, training, and laboratory facilities, and it will offer students associate degrees in sequestration technology. The ADM Illinois ICCS project is located in Decatur, Illinois. Partners include: Schlumberger Carbon Services, Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), and Richland Community College (RCC).
Links U.S. Department of Energy
Energy Futures Initiative
Global CCS Institute
Implementation Costs & Impact Factor This project received a $141 million investment from DOE, matched by over $66 million in private-sector cost share. The Archer Daniels Midland project can store roughly 1 million tons of CO2 per year in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, which has an estimated storage potential of over 250 million tons of CO2 per year.
Scalable Potential According to Dr. Julio Freidmann, senior research scholar at the Center on Global Energy Policy at Columbia University, the California Central Valley is one of a few geological areas in Northern America particularly conducive to CCS. In California, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) enables CCS projects to generate credits that have traded on average between $122-190/tCO2 in 2018-2019. On top of LCFS, federal 45Q credits worth $31/tCO2 for geological storage are expected to increase in value and scale, with estimates that the U.S. Treasury will provide between $3.5-5 billion per year of tax credits starting in 2025.
Similar Port Arthur, TX
Petra Nova, Houston

3.8.2 Develop pneumatic waste collection systems

Source: Sidewalk Talk

Location Wembley Park, UK
Details Wembley Park’s automated waste collection system serves a mixture of residential, retail, and hotel properties with more than two and a half miles of underground tubes. It has the capacity to handle nearly 6,000 metric tons of waste and recycling per year — and its recycling rate is double the U.K. average. The system’s pneumatic tubes are powered by large vacuum pumps located in the collection center. The pumps are powerful enough to transport waste at speeds of up to 40 miles per hour. That requires a lot of electricity, but the pumps don’t operate continuously; rather, they run only as the system’s valves are opened. Wembley Park’s vacuum waste system consumes 300 kilowatt hours of electricity daily. That’s about one-tenth of a kilowatt-hour per day for each residence served by the system, roughly equivalent to the consumption of a 100-watt incandescent lightbulb for 70 minutes.
Links Sidewalk Talk
Brent Council
Implementation Costs & Impact Factor The up-front capital costs for the Envac system amounted to more than $16 million. Once built, however, its operation has come at substantial savings: that same Brent Council study pegged the operational cost of the Envac system at under $275,000 per year, compared to the nearly $900,000 annual cost of curbside collection. To make the finances work, the borough and the developer arrived at a unique arrangement: the developer would pay for the system’s construction and operation, while the borough would pay for part of the collection service. In Wembley Park, truck movements for waste collection have been reduced by 90 percent, saving more than 400 tons per year in carbon dioxide emissions. That figure is expected to rise to nearly 700 tons per year once the redevelopment is complete.
Scalable Potential North America remains a laggard, but some promising projects are underway. Typically, installing pneumatic systems in older urban districts can be a more expensive proposition than a new, large-scale redevelopment, since it requires retrofitting existing underground infrastructure to accommodate the vacuum tubes.
Similar New York City, NY
Bergen, Norway

3.8.3 Charge for waste disposal except recycling and compost

Source: Brink News

Location Seoul, South Korea
Details In 1995, South Korea replaced its flat tax for waste disposal with a new system. Recycling materials were picked up free of charge, but for all other trash the city imposed a fee, which was calculated by measuring the size and number of bags. By 2006, it was illegal to send food waste to landfills and dumps; citizens were required to separate it out. The new waste policies were supported with grants to the then nascent recycling industry. Residents of Seoul can buy designated biodegradable bags for their food scraps, which are disposed of in automated bins, usually situated in an apartment building’s parking area. The bins weigh and charge per kilogram of organic waste. The thirteen thousand tons of food waste produced daily in South Korea now become one of three things: compost (thirty per cent), animal feed (sixty per cent), or biofuel (ten per cent).
Links New Yorker
Korea Zero Waste Movement Network
Implementation Costs & Impact Factor These measures have led to a decrease in food waste, per person, of about three-quarters of a pound a day—the weight of a Big Mac and fries, or a couple of grapefruits. The country estimates the economic benefit of these policies to be, over the years, in the billions of dollars.
Scalable Potential Mandatory organics recycling could save money. Sanitation trucks would have waste to pick up throughout the city, as opposed to gathering bits and pieces from participating households. (Organics collection currently averages between one and two tons per truck shift, a fraction of the capacity of ten to twelve tons.) There’s even a small amount of money to be made from selling compost, though for now much of it is given away in the interest of generating enthusiasm and awareness.
Similar New York City, NY
Seattle, WA